Sunday, March 15, 2020

The eNotes Blog The Fate of the Folios A Tale of Intrigue at theFolger

The Fate of the Folios A Tale of Intrigue at theFolger Henry Clay Folger was a man with a mission. His goal was to obtain every possible copy of William Shakespeares venerated First Folio in existence.   Folger   began his obsessive quest in 1893 and over the next 35 years, he acquired 82 of the manuscripts. The most recent sale of a Folio in 2001 went for $6 million dollars, so the Folger Collection is one not only of great literary worth, but of considerable monetary value as well. With so few surviving Folios, perhaps it is not surprising that the manuscripts have been subjected to theft and intrigue. That compelling history is the subject of the Folgers newest exhibit, Fame Fortune Theft: The Shakespeare First Folio. The exhibit will include 10 of the manuscripts, and you may view one of them online here. The Folios are a big deal for several reasons. First, without the work of two of Shakespeares fellow actors, John Heminge and Henry Condell, there would be no extant copies of some of the most beloved of Shakespearean works, including Macbeth, Julius Caesar, As You Like It, The Winters Tale, and Twelfth Night. Heminge and Condell were exasperated by the false copies being circulated, cheap quatros that frequently did not even include the authors name, and told the public that they had been abus’d with diverse stolne, and surreptitious copies, maimed, and deformed by the frauds and stealthes of injurious impostors.† They promised authentic manuscripts and collected them into an impressive 900 page volume. Another reason why the Folios are important is that they reveal the fact that William Shakespeare was a man of great stature at the time of his death. The Folios measure 8 1/2 x 13 3/8 inches, a size typically reserved for lectern Bibles and great works of literature. The forward is written by the esteemed playwright Ben Jonson: Thou art a Monument, without a tombe,/And art alive still, while thy booke doth live. The engraved portrait by Martin Droeshout is the reason we know what Shakespeare looked like. The Folger exhibition is not meant to delve into the literary merits of the works, however, but to uncover their past: how they changed hands, whether by legitimate sale or by theft, how copies became damaged, what prices they have fetched over the course of 400 years, and how they came to reside in the Folger and elsewhere. Some of the stories seem fit for a modern spy novel. For example, in 1940, a man working for a crime syndicate, posed as an English professor and gained access to a Folio housed at Williams College. On his first visit, he measured the Folio precisely. On his next visit, he brought a cut copy of Reynard the Fox in a slip-on binding. He exchanged Reynard for the Folio, and walked out. The FBI finally caught up with the man and retrieved the manuscript. How some of the copies became damaged is interesting as well. In one instance, the noted 19th-century American actor Edwin Forrest purchased one of the Folios and had a glass case built to house it. He bequeathed the manuscript to the Home for Decayed Actors in Philadelphia. A massive fire a few years later destroyed most of the pages, but a few of the survivors are now on display at the University of Philadelphia, and are still in Forrests specially-made glass case. The pages are considered too delicate to travel, so the Folger has re-created them for the exhibit. Finally, it is interesting to see how the value of the Folios has increased exponentially from 1800 to 195 purchases of the First Folio doubled every 50 years. Additionally, it is not just England and the United States who own precious copies; so too do New Zealand, Australia, Africa, and Japan. â€Å"Fame, Fortune Theft: The Shakespeare First Folio† runs through Sept. 3 at the Folger Shakespeare Library, 201 East Capitol Street S.E., Washington; (202) 544-7077, folger.edu.

Friday, February 28, 2020

Progressive Era during the Great Depression Essay

Progressive Era during the Great Depression - Essay Example The progressive era that transpired through the 1800s to 1920s established a critical moment of change for the American society and world in general. The period characterized by massive urbanization coupled with high rate of industrialization. In nutshell, the Progressive era became synonymous with high levels of poverty that touched lower class that constituted the biggest percentage of the American population. No sooner had the impacts the Progressive era fade than America and world, in general, bumped into yet another tempting moment of Great Depression. This period began in 1929 and ended in early 1940, before giving way for World War II. According to Sage, the spirit of progressive started to signalize in the early 1890s when small businesspersons, farmers, and other reform-oriented leaders merged to form the Populist Party. The purposes of the party were to confront and address the problems faced by the American societies such unemployment, injustice, poor leadership among other. It is from Populist Party that Progressives would later develop after the former gained national trust. As mentioned earlier, Progressive era entailed numerous events ranging from urbanization and industrialization that necessitated the need for change in the American societies. The rate at which urbanization took place alongside industrialization could only translate to the effects of poverty. Increased poverty among the majority of citizens translated to poor health services, high crime rates, racism, violence, class warfare, and greed, together with corruption. In the description of Burt, poor working conditions and environments were als o justifiable causes of concern by the Progressives. By 1890, 18% of the total labor in the country constituted of the women and children.

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

America's response to the Flat World Case Study

America's response to the Flat World - Case Study Example Apart from World Trade Organization (WTO) and General Agreement on Tariffs Trade (GATT), the United States has entered into small trade deals as part of their plan to pursue trade liberalization on multilateral, regional and bilateral fronts. Securing ties with strategic partners enables the United States to expand its already booming economy. It can conquer overwhelmingly small and developing economies through these trade agreements (McMahon, 2006). As of 2005, America has entered into ten Free Trade Agreements. The first trade agreement is with Israel in 1985. This was followed by Canada and Mexico which comprises the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) which took effect in 2004. A free-trade agreement with Jordan went into effect on December 17, 2001. Negotiations for free-trade areas with Singapore and Chile, begun in December 2000, have been completed. On January 21, 2003, the United States and Morocco announced their intention to negotiate a free-trade agreement, and on May 21, 2003, the United States and Bahrain announced such an intention (www.citizen.org/trade/nafta, 2006) . It was then followed by the partnership with the countries such as Australia, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Honduras. An agreement with Guatemala, the Dominican Republic and Costa Rica have passed congress and has yet to be enforced. There are three more agreements that are being considered by congress, with Oman, Peru and Colombia. Talks are be ing done with 11 more would be trade partners, either bilaterally, as part of regional deals or as members of customs union (McMahon, 2006). Free trade agreements (FTAs) are arrangements or pacts between countries to secure preferential deals with strategically important countries. It can help the companies to enter and compete more easily in the global marketplace. In these kinds of agreements, this will help level the international playing field and encourage foreign governments to adopt open and transparent rule making procedures, as well as non-discriminatory laws and regulations (McMahon, 2006). FTAs also help strengthen business climates by eliminating or reducing tariff rates, improving intellectual property regulations, opening government procurement opportunities, easing investment rules, and much more. These deals may be lowering or in some cases elimination of tariffs and other hindrances on goods. NAFTA for instance, has set limits for safety and inspection of meats sold in the grocery stores, new patents for medicines that raised its prices constraints on local government's ability to zone against sprawl or t oxic industries; and elimination of preferences for spending the tax dollars on U.S.-made products or locally-grown food (Gruben,1997). Related to this, international trade is an integral part of the U.S. economy, accounting for more than one-quarter of U.S. gross domestic product and supporting more than 12 million U.S. jobs, including 1 in 5 manufacturing positions. FTAs can be a catalyst for accelerating economic growth by allowing greater competition, encouraging the formation

Friday, January 31, 2020

Alaska Milk Essay Example for Free

Alaska Milk Essay My name is Joselito T. Santos Jr. and Im a senior at San Beda College, majoring in legal management. As a graduating student of the said college an important school paper requirement for one of my subject which is Strategic Management should be accomplished to graduate. Im writing to express my interest in making a Strategic Management paper for your prestagious company which is the Alaska Milk Company Philippines. Documents such company documents, financial documents and marketing documents will be needed for the progress of my paper. I will assure that all of your documents will be taken care of and only be used as reference for the progess of my paper. Im hoping you will help me and in return I will provide your company a great Strategic Management Plan for the development of your company. Thank you. Sincerely, Joselito T. Santos Jr. ALASKA MILK CORPORATION OUR VISION Is to be a leading consumer foods company with a diversified portfolio of consumer food brands and products that are market leaders in their respective categories. OUR MISSION PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT. We will continue to build on the strengths and competitive attributes of the ALASKA brand and develop its full marketing potential. We will develop new products and identify market opportunities, mindful of our task to be responsive to the ever changing and growing needs of our consumers. CUSTOMER SERVICE Customer relationship is an integral part of building the Alaska business. We aim to provide our partners in trade the best and most efficient service, making use of leading edge technology to ensure timely product availability and accessibility. We strive to know and understand our customers fully to bridge the gap between what they need and what we can give. QUALITY Ultimately, the consumer whom we serve and their level of satisfaction with our products become our final judge and jury. We are committed to deliver high quality milk and other consumer food products from production to consumption. We will respond to the call to deliver higher quality nutrition to every Filipino home. PEOPLE. We recognize that our people, the Alaska Team Members, are on of our most important assets and we are committed to promote their safety and welfare. Their wealth of experience, ideas, dedication and strong work ethic lay the foundation for the Companys continued success. It is our goal as much as it is theirs, to pursue and reach their full potentials through continuing education, training, and skills-enhancement programs. We challenge each individualby providing the opportunity to contribute to the Companys endeavors. PROFITABLE GROWTH. Growth that creates value for our shareholders is paramount. We will deploy our resources on investment opportunities that are within our core competence and yield excellent returns relative to its risks and which are consistent with our growth objectives. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY We recognize our role in nation building by promoting the protection of the environment and taking part in various community-building projects that help enhance and uplift the quality of life of the underprivileged and the marginalizedsectors of our society. Original Mission Product and Services Yes. We will develop new products and identify market opportunities, mindful of our task to be responsive to the ever changing and growing needs of our consumers. Quality Yes We are committed to deliver high quality milk and other consumer food products from production to consumption. We will respond to the call to deliver higher quality nutrition to every Filipino home. Market No Concern for survival and profitability Yes We will deploy our resources on investment opportunities that are within our core competence and yield excellent returns relative to its risks and which are consistent with our growth objectives. Technology Yes We aim to provide our partners in trade the best and most efficient service, making use of leading edge technology to ensure timely product availability and accessibility. Philosophy No Self Concept No Concern for Public Image Yes We recognize our role in nation building by promoting the protection of the environment and taking part in various community-building projects that help enhance and uplift the quality of life of the underprivileged and the marginalizedsectors of our society. Concern for Employee Yes. We recognize that our people, the Alaska Team Members, are on of our most important assets and we are committed to promote their safety and welfare. Revised Vision Is to be a leading and the number one dairy consumer foods company in the Philippines both Luzon,Visayas and Mindanao regions with a distinct and well known various consumer food brands and products that are market leaders and highest profit earners in their respective categories, Revised Mission Product and Services Yes We will develop new products and identify market opportunities, mindful of our task to be responsive to the ever changing and growing needs of our consumers. Quality Yes We are committed to deliver high quality milk and other consumer food products from production to consumption. We will respond to the call to deliver higher quality nutrition to every Filipino home. Market Yes We are committed in building a brige connecting all Filipinoes who are not just living in Luzon but also Filipinoes who are living in Visayas and Mindanao and targeting all economic classes in the Philippines such as the upper,middle and lower classes by providing new a product with quality and affortability. Concern for survival and profitability Yes. We will deploy our resources on investment opportunities that are within our core competence and yield excellent returns relative to its risks and which are consistent with our growth objectives. Technology Yes We aim to provide our partners in trade the best and most efficient service, making use of leading edge technology to ensure timely product availability and accessibility. Philosophy Yes We provide consumers with our products a choice to make their bodies to be more healthier and fit. Have a healty lifestyle and to live longer so that they can enjoy their fruitful years in their existence. Self Concept Yes We recognize that the company for so many years our company touches the hearts of all Filipinoes and with that we are one of the top supplier of consumer products in the Philippines. So we believe we provide provide products that has quality and affortability Concern for Public Image Yes We recognize our role in nation building by promoting the protection of the environment and taking part in various community-building projects that help enhance and uplift the quality of life of the underprivileged and the marginalizedsectors of our society. Concern for Employee Yes We recognize that our people, the Alaska Team Members, are on of our most important assets and we are committed to promote their safety and welfare. New Mission and Vission Vision Is to be a leading and the number one dairy consumer foods company in the Philippines both Luzon,Visayas and Mindanao regions with a distinct and well known various consumer food brands and products that are market leaders and highest profit earners in their respective categories, Mission Product and Services Yes. We will continue to build on the strengths and competitive attributes of the ALASKA brand and develop its full marketing potential. We will develop new products and identify market opportunities, mindful of our task to be responsive to the ever changing and growing needs of our consumers. Quality Yes Ultimately, the consumer whom we serve and their level of satisfaction with our products become our final judge and jury. We are committed to deliver high quality milk and other consumer food products from production to consumption. We will respond to the call to deliver higher quality nutrition to every Filipino home. Market Yes We are committed in building a brige connecting all Filipinoes who are not just living in Luzon but also Filipinoes who are living in Visayas and Mindanao and targeting all economic classes in the Philippines such as the upper,middle and lower classes by providing new a product with quality and affortability. Concern for survival and profitability Yes Growth that creates value for our shareholders is paramount. We will deploy our resources on investment opportunities that are within our core competence and yield excellent returns relative to its risks and which are consistent with our growth objectives. Technology Yes Customer relationship is an integral part of building the Alaska business. We aim to provide our partners in trade the best and most efficient service, making use of leading edge technology to ensure timely product availability and accessibility. We strive to know and understand our customers fully to bridge the gap between what they need and what we can give. Philosophy Yes We provide consumers with our products a choice to make their bodies to be more healthier and fit. Have a healty lifestyle and to live longer so that they can enjoy their fruitful years in their existence. Self Concept Yes We recognize that the company for so many years our company touches the hearts of all Filipinoes and with that we are one of the top supplier of consumer products in the Philippines. So we believe we provide provide products that has quality and affortability Concern for Public Image Yes We recognize our role in nation building by promoting the protection of the environment and taking part in various community-building projects that help enhance and uplift the quality of life of the underprivileged and the marginalizedsectors of our society. Concern for Employee Yes We recognize that our people, the Alaska Team Members, are on of our most important assets and we are committed to promote their safety and welfare. Their wealth of experience, ideas, dedication and strong work ethic lay the foundation for the Companys continued success. It is our goal as much as it is theirs, to pursue and reach their full potentials through continuing education, training, and skills-enhancement programs. We challenge each individualby providing the opportunity to contribute to the Companys endeavors. Chapter 1 Introduction. Alaska Milk products were first manufactured in the Philippines in 1972 through Holland Milk Products, Inc. (HOMPI), a partnership between AMCs former parent company, General Milling Corporation (GMC), an industrial foods company with interests in flour, feed and soy bean milling, and a Dutch dairy company, Holland Canned Milk International B. V. HOMPI initially manufactured liquid canned filled milk products, (evaporated and sweetened condensed milk) and eventually expanded to manufacture powdered filled milk and UHT milk products division up until AMCs spin-off and incorporation as a separate and independent corporate entity in 1994. It was also a time when the company embarked on a major expansion program which prompted the company to tap the capital markets through an initial public offering (IPO) to raise funds for the capacity expansion of its powdered milk facilities. Alaska Milk shares were listed in the Philippine Stock Exchange in 1995. Post-IPO, GMC held 66% of AMC while 34% was left in free float to the public. In mid-1997, however, GMC transfered its 66% ownership in AMC to individual shareholders of GMC through a property dividend, thus fully divesting its interest in AMC and enabling management to consolidate and focus its efforts in pursuing AMCs interests in the consumer foods industry. Currently, management and strategic partner Campina Melkunie hold 56% while 44% is in public free float. For over thirty years, AMC has emerged as one of only two major players in the Philippine milk industry, consistently maintaining brand leadership in the liquid canned milk category and holding a strong and growing position in powdered milk. It has also expanded into higher value-added milk products, particularly in UHT/Ready-to-Drink milk category. Apart from growing its core businesses, AMC endeavors to diversity and explore opportunities in related consumer products with global food companies that will complement AMCs existing revenue base. In 1972, Alaska began caring for the Filipino family by providing quality milk products for good nutrition and health. Since then, it has shown its caring in other ways: through programs that promote sports development, campaigns that foster good values among children and product innovations aimed at enhancing the Filipinos health and welfare. It is this commitment to the Filipino that has made Alaska a leading brand. In 1996, the mission of caring for the Filipino and bringing nutrition to each home grows stronger than ever, as Alaska looks forward to the next 25 years. Board of Directors Our board of directors have successful careers in businese, academe and public service. Research Design Data that will be used for the company analysis will be gathered from the websites of Alaska Milk Company, documents and other papers will be get from a connection working inside the company and other government agencies such Securities of Exchange Commisions and National Statistics Office. These government offices have the relevant informations for the paper to progess To assess Alaskas performance relative to its competitors, audited financial reports for 2010 and 2011 will be obtained from Alaska Milk Company as well as its key competitors from the Securities and Exchange Commission. Aside from getting and providing financial data, the published annual reports in general circulations such as newspaper will also serves as a good source of internal and competitor information. Statements from the corporate website of Alaska and its competitors will be used to determine recent developments, marketing activities and other internal and competitor information. To be able to benchmark the pricing of the company relative to its competitors, various. Scope and Limitation. This paper will be limited to Alask Milk Coporation dairy food ventures in the Philippines. This paper intends to create a product which has a high demand in the food market and making a dairy product that will be competing to an exisiting market. The paper will focus on how can the company attract consumers to buy, earn profit and compete in the Philippine food consumer market in providing a new product such as a milk tea powder and making an exsisting dairy product such as white cheese product. The paper will only concentrate to the introduced new business product such as the caramel milk tea powder and white cheese productions of Alaska Milk Company. Its other products will not be tackled in this paper. Due to the timing of the submission of this paper, only the 2011 Annual report will be used. The strategies recommended in this paper will affect the financials of the company in 2012 up to 2016. Major Assumptions * Alaska Milk Company will be the first food consumer company to produce caramel milk tea powder drink all over the Philippines. * Alaska Milk Company will be the first food consumer company to sell milk tea products in a low a price compare to its competitors. * Alaska Milk Company will be the first food consumer company to commercial and sell low priced nutrious white cheese products. * Alaska Milk Company White cheese product will be the number one cheese product in the Philipppines taking the place of other cheese product competitors. * The percentage income of Alaska Milk Company will increase due to high demand of its new product III. External Analysis.

Thursday, January 23, 2020

The Strengths and Weaknesses of the Cosmological Argument for the Exist

The Strengths and Weaknesses of the Cosmological Argument for the Existence of God The cosmological argument seeks to prove the existence of God by looking at the universe. It is an A posteriori proof based on experience and the observation of the world not logic so the outcome is probable or possible not definite. The argument is in three forms; motion, causation and being. These are also the first three ways in the five ways presented by Aquinas through which he believed the existence of God could be shown. Aquinas regarded Aristotle as the principal philosopher so many of these concepts originate in the thinking of Aristotle. One example of the cosmological argument is the argument of causation. Everything has a cause. Everything itself has a cause. But, you cannot have an infinite number of causes. Therefore there must have been an uncaused causer, which causes everything to happen without itself being caused by anything else. Such an uncaused cause is what people understand by 'God'. This idea was revisited by William Lane Craig who developed the Kalam cosmological argument. He reinforced the contention that the universe must have had a creator by firstly proving that the universe if finite. He proves this by explaining that the present would not exist in an actual infinite universe, because successive additions cannot be added to an actual infinite. The present does exist, as a result of a chronological series of past events. The universe must be finite. Craig seeks to prove that the universe must have had a beginning in time and that there must have been a creator who was uncaused. The Kalam argument makes the cosmologi... ...but does not prove there was a being that started this. The beginning of the universe could be put down to coincidence followed by the evolution of life. However, it does not disprove the existence of an uncaused causer. How do we not know that God was not responsible for the big bang? In conclusion we can see that there are many reasons to believe that the universe must have had a beginning. Both from a philosophical and scientific point of view. However, this cannot be proved, we are still able to question the idea. It is also debatable as to whether or not a personal creator was involved. This is down to personal belief and faith in God. I do not personally believe that the cosmological argument is strong enough to prove the existence of God. But, it is very convincing in proving that the universe had a beginning.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Government Hospital and Free Health Care

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Government and Privat Hospital and Free Health Care – Essay Every government provides services for their citizens. One of the key areas governments focus their attention on is public health care. Citizens have the benefit of receiving free health care services whenever they need it. Yet, everything that is provided for free has its drawbacks. There are disadvantages as well as advantages associated with free health care services provided by governments for their citizens. Firstly, with the anticipation of free health services, there is a high likelihood of poor quality of services. According to the Ministry of Health’s Strategic Plan 2011-2015, Fiji has one of the lowest total health expenditure as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) when compared to other Pacific Island countries. As a result of a lack of finances, it can be expected that health services and products may not be of high quality. Moreover, cheaper and less effective medication may be given in place of quality and effective drugs. It should not be expected that citizens have the best quality of health services due to the limited budget and expenditure of the ministry. Another disadvantage of free health care is the shortage of doctors and nurses. The Minister of Health (Fiji), Dr Neil Sharma said that doctor shortages were a common occurrence in every part of the world and Fiji was no exception (Malo 2011, p. 5). For instance, at Rakiraki Hospital one doctor looks after over ten thousand people and only three doctors cater for the twenty-nine thousand population of Tavua (Malo 2011, p. 5). From this information it can be seen that the doctor to patient ratio is very low. Thirdly, free health care services leads to overcrowding in hospitals. With the availability of free medical services, citizens have the opportunity to make the most use of the services provided to them and this in turn leads to overcrowding. It is an all too common site to see long queues and frustrated patients at the outpatient section of major hospitals (Fiji Times Online 2008). Many people wait for hours before they are seen as the hospitals are just not large enough to cater for them all. With the large population of Fiji, it is not surprising that overcrowding occurs in hospitals. However, free health care services have many advantages as well. Governments spend a lot of time, money and resources in providing health care services and it is only after carefully examining the benefits that these services are provided. The advantages that will be considered include benefit to all classes of people, the continual improvement of healthcare services and the reduction and control of disease outbreaks. Equally important to consider are the advantages of free health services. Free health services benefit all classes of people especially the poor and needy who cannot afford expensive treatments offered at private hospitals and those citizens who do not have health insurance. In Fiji, the healthcare system is mainly financed through general taxation (Ministry of Health Strategic Plan 2011-2015, p. 11). The revenue collected from taxation is based on income levels and the ability of the individual to pay. Consequently, the poor families benefit greatly from this service as they get the most out of it. In addition, another advantage to consider is that the government continually improves its services. Citizens benefit greatly from the improved health services governments provide. According to the Minister of Health, Dr Neil Sharma, the ministry’s foremost objective is to strengthen primary healthcare services in the country. The Permanent Secretary for Health, Dr Salanieta Saketa added that one major target for the ministry is to improve the delivery of primary healthcare services (Ministry of Health Annual Corporate Plan 2011, pp. 3-4). The Fiji government also spends a substantial amount on educating and training health professions (Panda 2003, p. 37). These are only a few of the many ways the government is improving the healthcare system. Finally, free health services help to reduce and control disease outbreaks. Those individuals who are carriers of infectious diseases are treated and cared for. For example, the Ministry of Health has sections dealing with HIV and AIDS, adolescent and reproductive health, oral health and non-communicable diseases to name a few. Information is also provided on these diseases and prevention. These services are very beneficial to the itizens and the nation as a whole as it stops the risk of spreading the illness to the entire population. Free health services are indeed beneficial for the entire population. In conclusion, free health services provided by governments have its disadvantages and advantages. Although there are disadvantages to this service, in some ways, the advantages do outweigh the disadvantages. Governments do recognise the need for poor and needy families’ access to healthcare services and also know that in order to cater for their citizens needs, they must continually improve their health services. Governments also recognise the need to control or if possible eliminate the outbreak of infectious diseases in order to protect the entire population. The government has done a great job in providing the citizens with healthcare services and this can be improved by allocating more finances to the health sector. With these in play, it is safe to say that the free health care services governments provide have great advantages for their citizens.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

M26 Pershing Tank in World War II

The M26 Pershing was a heavy tank developed for the U.S. Army during World War II. Conceived as a replacement for the iconic M4 Sherman, the M26 suffered from an extended design and development process as well as political infighting among the U.S. Armys leadership. The M26 arrived in the final months of the conflict and proved effective against the latest German tanks. Retained after the war, it was upgraded and evolved. Deployed during the Korean War, the M26 proved superior to the tanks used by Communist forces but struggled at times with the difficult terrain and suffered from various issues with its systems. The M26 was later replaced by the Patton series of tank in the U.S. Army. Development Development of the M26 began in 1942 as production was beginning on the M4 Sherman medium tank. Initially intended to be a follow-on for the M4, the project was designated T20 and was to serve as a test bed for experimenting with new types of guns, suspensions, and transmissions. T20 series prototypes employed a new torqmatic transmission, the Ford GAN V-8 engine, and the new 76 mm M1A1 gun. As testing moved forward, problems emerged with the new transmission system and a parallel program was established, designated T22, which utilized the same mechanical transmission as the M4. A third program, the T23, was also created to test a new electric transmission which had been developed by General Electric. This system quickly proved to have performance advantages in rough terrain as it could adjust to rapid changes in torque requirements. Pleased with the new transmission, the Ordnance Department pushed the design forward. Possessing a cast turret mounting the 76 mm gun, the T23 was produced in limited numbers during 1943, but did not see combat. Instead, its legacy proved to be its turret which was later utilized in 76 mm gun-equipped Shermans. Panther Tank. Bundesarchiv, Bild 101I-300-1876-02A A New Heavy Tank With the emergence of the new German Panther and Tiger tanks, efforts began within the Ordnance Department to develop a heavier tank to compete with them. This resulted in the T25 and T26 series which built upon the earlier T23. Devised in 1943, the T26 saw the addition of a 90 mm gun and substantially heavier armor. Though these greatly increased the tanks weight, the engine was not upgraded and the vehicle proved underpowered. Despite this, the Ordnance Department was pleased with the new tank and worked to move it towards production. The first production model, T26E3, possessed a cast turret mounting a 90 mm gun and required a crew of four. Powered by the Ford GAF V-8, it utilized a torsion bar suspension and torqmatic transmission. Construction of the hull consisted of a combination of castings and rolled plate. Entering service, the tank was designated M26 Pershing heavy tank. The name was selected to honor General John J. Pershing who had founded the U.S. Armys Tank Corps during World War I. M26 Pershing DimensionsLength: 28 ft. 4.5 in.Width: 11 ft. 6 in.Height: 9 ft. 1.5 in.Weight: 41.7 tonsArmor ArmamentPrimary Gun: M3 90 mmSecondary Armament: 2 Ãâ€" Browning .30-06 cal. machine guns, 1 Ãâ€" Browning .50 cal. machine gunArmor: 1-4.33 in.PerformanceEngine: Ford GAF, 8-cylinder, 450–500 hpSpeed: 25 mphRange: 100 milesSuspension: Torsion BarCrew: 5 Production Delays As design of the M26 came to completion, its production was delayed by an ongoing debate in the U.S. Army regarding the need for a heavy tank. While Lieutenant General Jacob Devers, the head of U.S. Army forces in Europe advocated for the new tank, he was opposed by Lieutenant General Lesley McNair, commander Army Ground Forces. This was further complicated by Armored Commands desire to press on the M4 and concerns that a heavy tank would not be able to use the Army Corps of Engineers bridges. With the backing of General George Marshall, the project remained alive and production moved forward in November 1944. While some claim that Lieutenant General George S. Patton played a key role in delaying the M26, these assertions are not well supported. Ten M26s were built in November 1943, with production escalating at the Fisher Tank Arsenal. Production also commenced at the Detroit Tank Arsenal in March 1945. By the end of 1945, over 2,000 M26s had been built. In January 1945, experiments began on the Super Pershing which mounted the improved T15E1 90mm gun. This variant was only produced in small numbers. Another variant was the M45 close support vehicle which mounted a 105 mm howitzer. An M26 Pershing of A Company, 14th Tank Battalion, is transported aboard a pontoon ferry across the Rhine on March 12, 1945. National Archives and Records Administration World War II Following American losses to German tanks in the Battle of the Bulge the need for the M26 became clear. The first shipment of twenty Pershings arrived in Antwerp in January 1945. These were split between the 3rd and 9th Armored Divisions and were the first of 310 M26s to reach Europe before the end of the war. Of these, around 20 saw combat. The M26s first action occurred with the 3rd Armored on February 25 near the Roer River. Four M26s were also involved in the 9th Armoreds capture of the Bridge at Remagen on March 7-8. In encounters with Tigers and Panthers, the M26 performed well. In the Pacific, a shipment of twelve M26s departed on May 31 for use in the Battle of Okinawa. Due to a variety of delays, they did not arrive until after the fighting had ended. Korea Retained after the war, the M26 was re-designated as a medium tank. Assessing the M26, it was decided to rectify the issues of its under-powered engine and problematic transmission. Beginning in January 1948, 800 M26s received new Continental AV1790-3 engines and Allison CD-850-1 cross-drive transmissions. Along with a new gun and host of other modifications, these altered M26s were redesignated as the M46 Patton. USMC M26 Pershing tank advancing in Korea, September 4, 1950. National Archives and Records Administration With the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950, the first medium tanks to reach Korea were a provisional platoon of M26s dispatched from Japan. Additional M26s reached the peninsula later that year where they fought alongside M4s and M46s. Though performing well in combat, the M26 was withdrawn from Korea in 1951 due to reliability issues associated with its systems. The type was retained by U.S. forces in Europe until the arrival of new M47 Pattons in 1952-1953. As the Pershing was phased out of American service, it was provided to NATO allies such as Belgium, France, and Italy. The Italians used the type until 1963.